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事业心强,为人豁达大方,幽默风趣。 笃信:人生就是一次短暂的旅行。生命的尽头,才是驿站。 已出版散文集《人间自有真情在》、《缘分的天空》, 诗集《岁月如歌》、《穿越浪漫的爱情世纪》、《还原本色》。并即将出版《肖渥拉书法摄影集》、《肖渥拉自选小说集》和诗集《我眼睛和你心对白 》。

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【随笔】 浅谈散文的特质 (原创)  

2010-09-28 14:21:42|  分类: 文苑拾趣 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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【随笔】 我和文学有缘分 (原创) - 博雅.wolaxiao - 博雅.wolaxiao的博客 

浅谈散文的特质

文/博雅.wolaxiao

       

        当代散文,已经不是包括杂文在内的广义的散文。当然,更不是那种古代的散文——除去韵文骈文之外的一切文章。当代散文短篇居多。因为,它便于写作,与现实生活贴近,反映时代风貌迅捷,能让人短时阅读,而获得审美体验。这样一种轻型、方便的文体形式,受到社会的普遍青睐和重视。

        当代散文精粹短小,具有单纯美。在人类众多的审美体验中,单纯美以它的简约而富于内蕴,纯净而含有复杂的独特魅力,远远超过了繁艳之美,曲折之美。当代散文正是以这种单纯美,立足于文学的殿堂,吸引着众多的读者。
        当代散文中,也有长篇散文,如冰心的《南归》。还有一些大的散文组,或称为系列散文,也是由许多各自成篇的小散文汇聚而成。如杨绛的《干校六记》,孙犁的《乡里旧闻》,巴金的《随想录》,季羡林的《牛棚杂忆》,韦君宜的《思痛录》等等。

        形散神聚,是散文的一种形态,但不能作为绝对形态被确定。形散神聚只是一种表征,不是本质。

        写散文的人,总是要把自己的情感剖割、解析、提炼、概括,从而确立一个新颖深刻的主旨,贯串其中,以求聚“神”;读散文的人,总是力图从散文作品中,归纳总结出其中所蕴含的哲理思考和深刻寓意,以求识“神”;教散文的人,也总是分层划段,围绕主题思想,寻章觅句地精讲细谈,以求讲“神”。

        散文情感的深刻性,往往与表现的模糊性有密切关系。如果,不对情感做较多的严格的逻辑限定,不用语言抽象地概括情感和明朗地揭示情感,只确定一种大体的目标和意图,只创造一种情调和氛围,使情感具有一定的模糊性,那么,就会造成广阔的意义空间,使情感的内涵丰富、深邃,加强了作品的表现力和感染力。

        散文和诗,各以自己的特质立足文坛。散文就是散文,诗就是诗。如果散文等于诗,因此,就可以没有诗,或者也可以没有散文;如果散文向诗靠拢,那么,散文就失去了散文的自我,失去了立身之本,就会消亡。但是,散文和诗可以互补,两者的美质可以交叉融合,从而衍生出散文诗。这种生长于交叉边缘地带的散文诗,可以使人别开生面,创造出另一种全新的审美体验。但是,它的被认可,并不代表诗和散文就可以趋同,或者可以合并。相反,我们应该得出的结论是,诗和散文之间必须有区别,这生长在交叉边缘地带的散文诗,才有其独特的魅力。

 

         散文表现的艺术有两层涵义。一层是表现情感,另一层是表现性灵。

        佘树森认为:散文是“情种”的艺术,“散文旨在写情”,“散文所表现的,主要是作者的感受——或感物之情,或所感之物,都离不开‘感受’二字。感受,即情也。”散文抒情比起小说、戏剧等样式的作品来,更为强烈、更为直接。作者充沛的感情往往见诸于笔端,流露在字里行间,感染力较强。

        性灵,即人的内在情性、心性、灵性。性灵一说,出自明代,公安派提出:“任性而发”,“出自性灵者为真诗”。袁宏道从“性灵”“任性”二点出发,充分肯定了人的个性,以及人的个性的独特性和多样性,他说:“率性而行谓之真人”。明代竟陵派也大力提倡“独抒性灵”。清代以袁枚为首的性灵派,更是格外地强调性灵。

        文学艺术对社会生活的反映,是通过再现与表现这两种形态进行的。

        再现是把复杂纷繁的客观世界,展现在作品之中,使读者对外在的客观世界获得具体可感的印象。小说、戏剧即属此类,旨在塑造典型形象,展现社会生活的冲突和矛盾。表现是把复杂深幽的主观世界,呈现在作品之中,使读者对作者的内在的主观世界产生理解和沟通。散文、诗歌即属此类,旨在表现作者的心灵,探索和展现人类情感生活的奥秘。小说、戏剧是让读者观看一种人生的真实生活图景。散文是让读者观看一种人类的情感的流程。

        人类在探索自己的内在主观世界方面,做得还很不够,随着科学技术的发展和物质文明的提高,人类将越来越多地省视内心,观照心灵。散文就像心电图,能蕴含较大的情感信息量,能如实、具体地反映人类各种情感的流程。散文作为表现艺术的一个重要品类,它无疑是人类省视内心、观照心灵的最佳形式。

        当代散文的最大特征,是每一个作家的每一篇散文里所表现出的个性,比以前的散文强。小说都带一些自叙传的色彩,从小说的人物里,可以见到作者自己的写照;但当代的散文,却更带有自叙传的色彩。只要把当代作家的散文集一翻,则这作家的身世、性格、嗜好、思想、信仰,以及生活习惯等等,活生生地显现在我们的眼前。这就是文学里,最可宝贵的个性的表现。

 

        散文表达方法灵活自由,对艺术技巧的依赖程度较低,追求一种自由之美。

        散文可以具体描绘,可以抽象议论;可以抒情,也可以记叙,或直抒胸臆,或借景抒情,或托物言志,或象征暗示。其手法之灵活,是任何文体都不能与之相比的,因此,它对艺术技巧的依赖程度较低。悬念是写情节的重要技巧,它有守密性悬念、美在吃惊。透露性悬念,美在猜测。全显性悬念,美在期待。艺术效果不尽相同。误会、巧合也是构成情节的技巧,是利用偶然性来表现必然性;利用偶然性来形成冲突,来构造情节的。散文的美是一种自由之美。它不像小说、戏剧等更多地是借助技巧来组成的,而散文在艺术表达上更自然,更贴近生活,有一种家常味。有一种漫不经心的样子,随意而写,不专门去作。

        散文形式结构无成法,没有固定的格式和现成的套路,追求一种自然之美。

        王国维说:“散文易学而难工”。易学来自于无规矩,难工也来自于无规矩。正是无规矩,你怎么写,都像散文,也是散文;正是无规矩,凭你怎么写,都很难写出高境界。大凡有规矩,就好把握,而无规矩,则无法把握。芭蕾舞就是一种有规矩的艺术,必须踮足而舞,而它美就美在踮足,美在有规矩。而邓肯则追求一种无规矩的境界,崇尚自然,无拘无束。散文就像邓肯的舞蹈,无规矩是它的重要特质。

        散文把絮语体、家常体和精粹融合在一起,追求一种自持之美。

        中国古代画论的空白,以无形表现有形。无形本身就是意象,是绘画艺术中一种以虚写实的技法。散文素以家常味、家常美、絮语美为自己的美质定位。即把精华的意象、精粹的情感,用一种家常絮语的形式表现出现,使它像诗(有诗的精粹)——体验感受意象,又不象诗(有家常絮语的特征),使它象小说(有小说的人和事),又不象小说(人和事都比小说简约精粹)。一句话,是博深的内容与短小形式的高度统一,以精粹为尚。

        散文情思浓缩,材料简约,篇幅简短。散文以平凡材料为内容,不求典型,生活琐事皆可入文,没有离奇的情节,没有曲折的故事,没有扣人心弦的人生命运,所写的都是极普通、极平常的人和事。这种材料的平凡性、普通性、琐碎性,如果,没有情思的浓缩独特,那就一无可取了。
        梁实秋《论散文》 中:“散文的美妙多端,然而最高的理想也不过是‘简单’二字而已。简单就是经过选择删芟以后的完美状态。”散文极讲究剪裁,删削冗繁,敢于割爱,寓繁于简,清明疏朗,给人一种净美的感觉。

       

        总而言之,文体的自由之美,结构的自然之美,语言的自如之美,主题的自持之美,相互融合,构成了散文的特质。

 

        备注:此篇拙文,是我散文集《缘分的天空》的序。

 

                         On the characteristics of prose
                                                   Text/Boya .wolaxiao
      

        Contemporary prose, not including essays, generalized prose. Of course, not that kind of ancient prose — remove verses prose all articles outside. The majority of contemporary prose stories. Because, it is easy to write, and close to real life, reflect the style and delivery times, makes short-time reading, and get the aesthetic experience. Such a light, easy style, favored by society in General.
        The essence of contemporary prose, with simple and short. In human multitude of aesthetic experience, pure beauty for its simple but rich in meaning, pure and unique charm with complex, far exceeding the propagation of brilliant beauty beauty of the twists and turns. Contemporary prose is precisely to this simple beauty, based on the Temple of literature, attracting a large number of readers.
        Contemporary prose, there is also a long prose, such as the South GUI Bing Xin. There are some great prose, prose, or known as series is composed of many individual into small prose brings together articles. If the six Yang Jiang-remoulding school ", the Sun Li village old news, BA Jin 's" Capriccio ", recorded in the treatise of the cowsheds zayi, Wei junyi" SI pain were recorded ", etc.
        -Bulk divinity, is a form of prose, but not as absolute form to be determined. -Bulk divinity-is only a characterization of the nature, is not.
        Write prose, always to put their own emotional profile cutting, parsing, refining, generally, to establish a new and profound theme runs through these, in order to get the "God"; read prose, always trying to out prose works, concluded out of the deep philosophical thinking and implications, in order to know "God"; teaches prose, he also always hierarchical classification section, around the topic ideas, seeking to find a chapter about fine on Goblin to talk about "God".
        Prose emotional deepness, often with the vagueness of the performance. If you do, not emotions more strict logic qualified, no language abstract emotion and clear overview reveals emotional and only determine a broad goals and intentions, only to create an ambience and atmosphere, the emotion has a certain ambiguity, then it will cause vast sense of space, so emotional connotation of the rich, deep, strengthen the work of expressiveness and impressive.
        Prose and poetry, each with its own characteristics based on the literary world. Prose is prose, poetry is poetry. If prose poems, therefore, is equal to no poetry or prose is not prose; if you move closer to the poems, prose will lose its prose of self, lost the foundation of, will perish. However, prose and poetry can be complementary, both cross-Fusion Beauty can thus derive prose. The growth in cross-frontier zone of prose poems that can make people fascinating, create another new aesthetic experience. However, it was recognized that does not mean that the poetry and prose to convergence, or you can merge. Rather, we have concluded that the poems and essays must be differentiated, this growth in cross-frontier zone of prose poetry, has its unique charm.
 
         Prose performance art has two meanings. A layer is the expression of emotion, another layer is the performance of the soul.
        Sheyang Shusen think: prose is "the art of he", "prose is to write love", "the prose, is the author's feelings — or interested in, or interested, can not be separated from the word ' feel '. Feelings, feelings. "Lyrical prose than novels, plays, and other style of work, more strongly, more direct. Author abundant feelings are often found in the biduan, read between the lines, the impact of the stronger.
        Soul, namely the inner feelings of the people, nature, spiritual. Spirit that is from the Ming dynasty, the school said: "the wayward and hair," and "comes from the soul's true poetry". Yuan Hongdao from "soul" and "willful," the second point, fully affirmed the human personality and individuality of the uniqueness and diversity, he said: "rate of rows that a real person." Jingling in Ming dynasty were also strongly advocated the "independence express soul." Yuan Mei in the Qing dynasty to soul party, headed by is particularly emphasis on the soul.
        Literature on social life of the reflect, through reproduction and performance of these two forms.
        Reproduction is a complex of the objective world, the works, so that the objective of external readers in the world for specific can sense impressions. Fiction, drama is such a case, aimed at shaping the typical image of the social life of conflict and contradictions. Performance is a complex and deep secluded in the subjective world, rendered in the works, so that the reader on the author's inherent subjective world understanding and communication. Prose, poetry is such a case, designed to show the author's soul, explore and reveal the mysteries of the human emotional life. Fiction, drama is to allow readers to watch a live picture of the real life. Prose is to allow readers to watch a man's emotional processes.
        Human in exploring their own inherent subjective world, doing very inadequate, with the development of science and technology and the improvement of material civilization, humans will increasingly placed inside that perspective to the soul. Prose like ECG, can contain a large amount of emotion, can truthfully, specifically reflect the human emotion of processes. Prose as performance art, an important category, it is the human heart, the soul meditation reflection best form.
        The greatest contemporary prose feature, every author and every essay in the personality, the prose than before. Novels have brought some color from Syria biography, from the novel's characters, you can see the author's own portrait; but contemporary prose, but more with the colour of the autobiographic biography. As long as the collection of essays on contemporary writers for a turn, the writer's life, character, habits, ideas, beliefs, and lifestyle habits, etc., alive in our eyes. This is the literature, the most valuable characteristic.
 
        Prose expression method, flexible, the freedom of artistic techniques rely on a relatively low degree of freedom to pursue a beauty.
        Prose can specific description, you can abstract argument; lyric, narrative, or straight bleed or King of lyric, or care, or symbol of the phenomenon. The approach of flexible, is any style can be compared, so it's artistic skills a relatively low degree of dependence. Suspense is writing an important skill of the plot, it defends the tightness of suspense, surprise us in. Disclosure of suspense, the US guessing. All dominant suspense, in expectation. Artistic effects. Misunderstanding, coincidence also constitute a plot of skills, is the use of the inevitability of incidental to performance; the use of chance to form a conflict, to construct plot. Prose beauty is a free beauty. It is not as fiction, drama, etc more with the skills to make up, and essays in art expressing more natural, more closely to the life, has a nice flavor. There is a casual look, feel free to write, not specialized to make.
        Prose form structure into law, there is no fixed format and out-of-the-art, the pursuit of a natural beauty.
        Wang Guowei said: "easy to learn but difficult work of prose." Learn from no rules, hard work but also from the no rules. It is not the rule, what to write, like prose, prose; it is not the rule, how do you write, it is very difficult to write. Generally, there are rules regarding good grasp without rules, you will not be able to grasp. Ballet is a rule of art, must stand on tiptoe full dance while its beauty beauty in tiptoed foot, the US has rules. While Duncan is the pursuit of a rule, the freedom of nature. Prose as Duncan's dance, no rules are important features of it.
        Prose to comprehend, homely and pristine together, the pursuit of the beauty of a self-assured.
        Ancient Chinese painting on blank to intangible manifestations visible. The image of the invisible is itself, is a painting in a virtual realism techniques. Prose in the mundane, taste, beauty beauty, some highlights from the mundane to their beauty. That is the essence of imagery, pristine emotion, with a performance in the form of everyday words, so that it appears like a poem (a poem of pristine) – experience the feelings of imagery, not like the poems (with home-style words features) to make it like fiction (novels of the people and events), and not as fiction (people and things minimalist gems than fiction). In a Word, the content of the boshen and short forms of highly integrated, with pristine as yet.
        Prose wall thickening, material simplicity, length short. Prose to ordinary materials for content, not for typical, life can be-in-man trivia, no strange twists and turns of the plot, there is no story, no exciting life destiny, written by are very common, ordinary people and events. The material of the ordinary, common, trivial, if no unique emotions concentration, not desirable.
        Liang Shiqiu "prose": "beautiful prose, however the highest ideal is the word ' simple '. Simple is a selection by deleting the shan State of perfection later. "Very particular about tailoring the prose, by cutting excessive propagation, dare to glaze, laws in enterprise, through its graceful, giving a net beautiful feeling.
       
        All in all, the beauty of stylistic freedom, the structure of natural beauty, the beauty of language freely on the theme of the beauty and fragility, amalgamation, constitutes the prose.
 
        Note: this article is my clumsy, essays on the fate of the order of the sky.

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